State law and federal law under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) allow physical agility and fitness tests at the application stage. A fitness test demonstrates the applicant's ability to perform job-related functions and is not considered a medical examination under the ADA. An example of a fitness test would be a lifting test for a job involving heavy lifting.
If physiological or biological responses are measured, the test is considered a medical exam. Under the ADA, an employer may not require a medical exam until after it has extended a conditional offer of employment to an applicant. If an applicant with a disability is screened out with a physical examination, the employer must be able to show that use of the test is job related and consistent with business necessity.